Archive for the ‘Exploitation’ Category

Puerto Rico and the Advent of the Pill

June 7, 2007

Last night I had been watching an episode on Modern Marvels, a program that I watch quite often. This one was called High Tech Sex and dealt with the advances in birth control, sexual stimulation, etc. ,etc.

As usual the show was interesting since it dealt with the scientific approach to a problem. All was going along fine until the narrator said that the pill had been tested in San Juan, Puerto Rico. Automatically I became suspicious. If the pill was being made in the U.S. why then was it being tested in Puerto Rico. Unfortunately I had been having trouble with my IP so was unable to connect with the Net and begin researching this matter at that moment. However, this morning all was well with the IP connection and I began my search.

I went to the Google Search engine and typed in, “  Medical test birth control pill San Juan, P.R. “  and immediately a page sprang up and there at the top was the start of my quest:
“American Experience The Pill Timeline
… first large scale clinical trials for the Pill in San Juan, Puerto Rico. …. Surveys show that birth control has disappeared from the list of medical … – 35k ”


This page dealt exactly with what I had heard on the program and I immediately began going through it very carefully. The show did not elaborate on the Pincus story. His part was only mentioned in a couple of lines. The site I encountered really went into tons of details. The reader can go to the site ( immediately above or at the bottom ) for the many pages that are there. Here I have written a short summary and a comment or two.
I have always felt and known that Puerto Ricans are looked upon as second, if not third class citizens and looked down on. This article gives a good representation of this very fact.

Dr. Gregory Goodwin Pincus. He can be said to be the creator of the Pill, but the extremes he went to can only be viewed as exploitation in the extreme.

Because anti-birth control laws in the U.S. at the time ( 1950’s ) made it impossible to conduct large scale human testing, both Pincus and his colleague, Harvard obstetrician and gynecologist Dr. John Rock decide on Puerto Rico as their proving ground.

In 1955 Pincus visited the island and discovered that it was the perfect location for human testing. There were no anti-birth control laws on the island. There was an extensive network of birth control clinics on the island.

The first thought that came to mind was that the administrators of the clinics had to have either suspected something or were in on the fact that this was to be an experiment. Data had to be collected and you can’t do that without knowing what you have to look for. The second thing that struck me was that none of the subjects were told that the pill they were using was experimental, they were just told that it would prevent pregnancy.

The trials began in Rio Piedras but quickly spread to other locations. Now bear in mind that the subjects were all poor working women. Three young women died during these experiments and no investigations were conducted to determine cause of death.

The article goes on to discuss the continued evolution of the pill. Pincus’ team would later be accused of  deceit, colonialism and exploitation of poor women of color, however, the harm was already done.

This presents a very good example of the sort of thing that Puerto Ricans must be watchful for. There are laws that prohibit the dispensing of experimental medicines without the consent or knowledge of the patient and these are the things that all should be aware of. Bear in mind as well that the U.S. is not the only country to have dealings with the island, there are many foreign interest at work on the island and even though this particular incident took place in the mid fifties one can never tell if it will repeat itself in the future.

For the reader who wants to delve into the entire article regarding the Pill and Dr. Pincus click Here.


How much is enough?

February 4, 2007


Yesterday my wife and I went out to attend the usual daily tasks that plague all of us such as paying bills and getting those things that are needed to continue our existence. Since I don’t drive I have time to scan the country side and see and take in the scenery. Each time that I go out on the road I cannot get over the fact that our island is changing at such a rapid pace and I cannot say it is for the better. Stateside and foreign developers as well as our own local chaps are constantly tearing the skin off our island in an unstoppable advance of of cement and asphalt. Where ever you look along the country side roads there are scars of construction. In many instances whole communities are being uprooted to make way for the insatiable appetite for land and so called progress. In these cases it is the way the government deals with the poor land owner and simply the poor. People who have lived in their homes for decades, many having been born there are suddenly being uprooted to have to begin all over again. It is a phenomenon that is taking place right now throughtout the island. Whole communities have disappeared to make room for luxury high priced condominiums that the usual person could not afford. $400,000.00 homes springing up like so much weed. I ask myself how long can this go on? Does the government have some sort of ad campaign going on stateside or in foreign lands that we are not aware of in which these homes are being advertised? Surely all these homes are not for the locals! Who could afford them? Obviously there are plans, unknown to us, that have been instituted to fill all of these homes and the tenants cannot all possibly be locals.




Where will it all end? This island is only 100 x 36 miles and already it is busting at the seams from over-population. Also, at the rate that we are going where are the poor to go? Will they eventually be herded into some corner of the island like was done with the indians in the states that were put on reservations? Many of these new condominium communities I see remind me of the forts that abounded out west during the early 1800’s with their high walls to keep the locals out. Images of that great Stienbeck novel ” The Grapes of Wrath ” constantly come before my eyes and I imagine whole communities being forced off their lands for the sake of profit and so called progress. When will enough be enough?